Category Archives: Networking

Networking notes and tutorials

Zigbee IEEE 802.15.4 Internet of Things (IoT) Protocol

Zigbee IEEE 802.15.4 The improvement of wireless protocols is a major factor driving the development of newer Internet of Things (IoT) devices and systems. The Zigbee suite of communication protocols is used to create personal area networks with small, low-power digital radios, such as home automation, medical device data collection, and other low-power low-bandwidth needs. The Zigbee physical layer… Read More »

Compression of Network Data and Performance Issues

Network-Compression. Today’s networks will always have data limitations. Data sets continue to grow on pace with increasing bandwidth availability making network-compression an important service in improving network performance. The network-compression used is actually a combination of compression and caching. It has been found that TCP rate control combined with network-compression provides the best value in terms of optimizing… Read More »

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) Hybla

  Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) Hybla. A key component of TCP is a congestion-control mechanism. TCP does this by having each sender limit the rate based on perceived network congestion. If a TCP sender perceives that there is little congestion on the path between itself and the destination, it increases its send rate. If the sender perceives that… Read More »

Domain Name System (DNS) – Application Layer Protocol

Domain Name System (DNS) and Domain Name Service Protocol An application-layer protocol defines how applications on different systems pass messages to each other. An application-layer protocol defines; the types of messages exchanged, the syntax of the various message types, the meaning of the information, and rules for determining when and how a process sends and responds to messages.… Read More »

Virtual Private Network (VPN) Security and Monitoring Controls

A Virtual Private Network (VPN) is a group of network hosts that can transfer encrypted data between themselves on a Virtual Private Network. The technology creates a safe encrypted connection, usually over public networks such as the internet, that allows remote users and locations such as branch offices, to securely access and share resources. The main benefit is… Read More »

Routing Protocols. RIP, EIGRP, OSPF, IS-IS

Routing protocols are used to establish a path between routers. The most common routing protocols used are: Routing Information Protocol (RIP), Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP), Open Shortest Path First (OSPF), and Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS). Which protocol to use with a Local Area Network (LAN) depends on the following Factors: Administrative cost of management. Administrative… Read More »

IDS / IDPS Detection Methods. Anomaly, Signature, and Stateful Protocol Analysis

IDS and IDPS detection methods include: anomaly detection, signature detection, and a newer method named stateful protocol analysis. Anomaly detection works using profiles of system service and resource usage and activity. The IDS/IDPS starts by creating a baseline also known as a training period. This baseline is used to compare to current usage and activity as a way to… Read More »

Bastion Host Overview

A Bastion Host (BH) is a computer on a network perimeter which is running a hardened Operating System (OS). This protection includes patches, authentication, encryption, and eliminates unnecessary software and services  (Weaver, Weaver, Farwood, & Weaver, 2012). Weaver et al.’s (2012) provides the following list of BH characteristics: A machine with adequate memory and processor speed. All patches… Read More »

Active and Passive Network Monitoring

Active and Passive Network Monitoring Active monitoring entails injecting test traffic onto a network and monitoring the flow of that traffic. Passive monitoring is more an observational study. Instead of injecting artificial traffic into a network, passive monitoring entails monitoring traffic that is already on the network (Sullivan, 2013). One popular passive monitoring tool is Wireshark. Wireshark technically… Read More »